Extraction is the removal of a tooth or teeth from the mouth. Extractions are performed for a wide variety of reasons, including tooth decay that has destroyed enough tooth structure to render the tooth non-restorable. Extractions of impacted or problematic wisdom teeth are routinely performed, as are extractions of some permanent teeth
Surgical extractions involve the removal of teeth that cannot be easily accessed, either because they have broken under the gum line or because they have not erupted fully. Surgical extractions almost always require an incision. In a surgical extraction the doctor may elevate the soft tissues and preserve the ridge with bone grafting, at which time a membrane is placed over the bone graft to facilitate retention of the graft particles. Frequently, the tooth may be split into multiple pieces to facilitate its atraumatic removal.